In SQL, bitwise operators are used to perform operations on individual bits of integer types. The primary bitwise operators available in most SQL dialects are:
1. **BITWISE AND (***&*): This operator performs a logical AND operation on each bit of two numbers. The result has bits set to 1 where both corresponding bits of the operands are 1.
2. **BITWISE OR (***|*): This operator performs a logical OR operation on each bit of two numbers. The result has bits set to 1 wherever at least one of the corresponding bits of the operand is 1.
3. **BITWISE XOR (***^*): This operator performs a logical XOR (exclusive OR) operation on each bit of two numbers. The result has bits set to 1 wherever the corresponding bits of the operands are different.
The availability and syntax of bitwise operators can differ between SQL dialects (like MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQL Server, etc.), so you should check the documentation for your specific version. Below are examples of how to use these operators in SQL:
###### Example Usage

###### MySQL

In MySQL, you can utilize bitwise operators directly in your queries:
SELECT
5 & 3 AS Bitwise_AND, -- Result: 1 (binary: 0101 & 0011 = 0001)
5 | 3 AS Bitwise_OR, -- Result: 7 (binary: 0101 | 0011 = 0111)
5 ^ 3 AS Bitwise_XOR; -- Result: 6 (binary: 0101 ^ 0011 = 0110)

###### PostgreSQL

In PostgreSQL, the same operations can be achieved:
SELECT
5 & 3 AS Bitwise_AND, -- Result: 1
5 | 3 AS Bitwise_OR, -- Result: 7
5 # 3 AS Bitwise_XOR; -- Note: XOR is represented by *#* in PostgreSQL

###### SQL Server

In SQL Server, you can also use these operators:
SELECT
5 & 3 AS Bitwise_AND, -- Result: 1
5 | 3 AS Bitwise_OR, -- Result: 7
5 ^ 3 AS Bitwise_XOR; -- Result: 6

###### Oracle

In Oracle SQL, there are no direct bitwise operators, but you can use bitwise calculations with the *BITAND()* function for AND:
SELECT
BITAND(5, 3) AS Bitwise_AND, -- Result: 1
(5 | 3) AS Bitwise_OR, -- OR can be manually calculated
(5 ^ 3) AS Bitwise_XOR -- XOR can also be manually calculated
FROM dual;

###### Practical Applications

- **Flags**: Bitwise operations are often used for flag fields where individual bits represent different boolean flags.
- **Permissions**: You can use bitwise operators to check for user permissions encoded as bits.
- **Data Compression**: They can also help in data manipulation for compact storage, masking, and efficient computation.
Always remember to ensure that the data types being used are integers, as bitwise operations are defined for integer types in SQL.